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Synonyms = BCIE, BIE, EHK, Keratin Type I Cytoskeletal 10, KRT10
Antibody type = Recombinant Mouse monoclonal / IgG1
Clone = MSVA-610M
Positive control = Skin: All squamous epithelial cells (except the basal cell layer) should show strong cytoplasmic staining, while the basal cell layer remains KRT10 negative or shows only minimal staining.
Negative control = Colon: All epithelial, inflammatory, stromal and muscle cells must not show any KRT10 staining.
Cellular localization = Cytoplasmic
Reactivity = Human
Application = Immunohistochemistry
Dilution = 1:100 – 1:200
Intended Use = Research Use Only
Relevance of Antibody
Cytokeratin 10 is expressed in keratinizing squamous epithelial cells
Cytokeratin 10 (CK10), also termed keratin 10 (KRT10) is a type I acidic high molecular weight keratin protein encoded by the KRT10 gene located 17q21. It dimerizes with the type I keratin 1 and forms intermediate filaments that primarily shape the cytoskeleton of specific epithelial cells. In these cells, KRT10 is part of the cytoskeletal scaffold which contributes to the cell architecture and provides the cells with the ability to withstand mechanical stress. Mutations in CK10 can cause epidermolytic hyperkeratosis or bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma of Brocq.
Staining Pattern in Normal Tissues
KRT10 is always strongly expressed in all suprabasal cell layers of the keratinizing squamous epithelium of the skin as well as in associated sebaceous glands+++ and hair follicles. The basal cell layer of the epidermis is strictly KRT10 negative. Strong KRT10 expression is also regularly observed in a fraction of cells in squamous epithelium of tonsil krypts and the central areas of corpuscles of Hassall’s+++. In contrast, KRT10 is mostly not seen in non-keratinizing squamous epithelium of different sites of origin such as ectocervix, surface of the tonsil, esophagus, oral cavity and lip. However, a variable fraction of suprabasal cells or groups of cells in in these non-keratinizing squamous epithelia may of show weak, moderate, or even strong KRT10 expression. KRT10 immunostaining is absent in urothelium and anal mucosa epithelium (transitional epithelium).
These findings are largely comparable to the RNA and protein data summarized in the Human Protein Atlas (Tissue expression Cytokeratin 10)
Suggested positive tissue control: Skin: All squamous epithelial cells (except the basal cell layer) should show strong cytoplasmic staining, while the basal cell layer remains KRT10 negative or shows only minimal staining.
Suggested negative tissue control: Colon: All epithelial, inflammatory, stromal and muscle cells must not show any KRT10 staining.
Staining Pattern in Relevant Tumor Types
KRT10 immunostaining almost exclusively occurs in squamous cell carcinomas of various sites of origin. The rate of KRT10 positive cases may vary depending on the histologic tumor grade. Some of the KRT10 positive squamous cell carcinomas show – similar to the situation in normal skin – absence of expression in the basal cell layers.
The TCGA findings on Cytokeratin 10 RNA expression in different tumor categories have been summarized in the Human Protein Atlas.
Compatibility of Antibodies
No data available at the moment
IHC users have different preferences on how the stains should look like. Some prefer high staining intensity of the target stain and even accept some background. Others favor absolute specificity and lighter target stains. Factors that invariably lead to more intense staining include higher concentration of the antibody and visualization tools, longer incubation time, higher temperature during incubation, higher temperature and longer duration of the heat induced epitope retrieval (slide pretreatment). The impact of the pH during slide pretreatment has variable effects and depends on the antibody and the target protein. Accordingly, multiple different protocols can generate identical staining results.
All images and data shown here and in our image galleries were obtained by the manual protocol described below. Other protocols resulting in equivalent staining are described as well.
Freshly cut sections should be used (less than 10 days between cutting and staining). Heat-induced antigen retrieval for 5 minutes in an autoclave at 121°C in pH7,8 Target Retrieval Solution buffer. Apply MSVA-610M at a dilution of 1:150 at 37°C for 60 minutes. Visualization of bound antibody by the EnVision Kit (Dako, Agilent) according to the manufacturer’s directions.
Impact of pH
MSVA-610M results in strongest staining if pH9,0 is used for slide pretreatment. pH7,8 is acceptable but lower pH results in a significant reduction of sensitivity.
Potential Research Applications
- The diagnostic utility of reduced CK10 expression in the skin is not known.
- The diagnostic utility of CK10 neo-expression in non-keratinizing squamous epithelium of ectocervix, esophagus, oral cavity and lip is not known.
- The prognostic role of CK10 expression in squamous cell carcinoma is unknown.
Evidence for Antibody Specificity in IHC
Utility of MSVA-610M is documented by a staining pattern that exactly matches the data summarized in the protein atlas. A strong positive KRT10 staining almost exclusively seen in the skin. All other tissues showing weak or occasional KRT10 staining are also squamous epithelia. In addition, all tissues known to not express KRT10 including those notorious for non-specific IHC background such as kidney and colonic mucosa are completely KRT10 negative.